The Muslim Sufis and mystics spread the light of Islam in Bengal in the 13th and 14th centuries.There was wide-scale ignorance prevalent among the Muslim masses about ISLAM resulting in the emergence of Hindu beliefs and practises in the society.The person who came forward to stimulate the dormant faith of the Bengali Muslims was Haji ShariatUllah.Haji ShariatUllahwas born in 1781 in the village of Shamil in the Faridpur District.
Haji ShariatUllah left for Hijaz in 1799 in a very young age.
After a long stay of twenty years he returned from Makkah in 1820.
During his stay in Arabia he was greatly impressed by the doctrines of Sheikh Muhammad Abdul Wahab.
Haji ShariatUllah began his reform movement known as Faraizi Movement in the centre of Bengal.
The Fraizimovemrnt emphasised on the performing of Faraiz, rligous duties imposed by Allah and His Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him).
Haji shariatUllah was deadly against the false and irrational beliefs which had arisen in the Muslim society.
His followers were known as Fraizis.
His movement brought the Muslim peasantry together against the cruel exploitation by the Hindu (Land Lords)zamindars.
The Fraizi movement of Haji ShariatUllah injected a great deal of confidence among the Muslim masses.
It infused spirit among the Muslim peasants who got together for the protection of their rights.
Hindu zamindarsStarted harassing him by instituting false cases against him.
He was forced to leave Najabari in the distict of Dacca.
He returned to his birth place in Faridpur district, where he continued his religious preaching and fighting against the non-Islamic forces till his death in 1840.
Haji ShariatUllah was succeeded by his son Mohsin-ud-din Ahmed (popularly known as DhuduMiyan).
He was born in 1819 and went to Arabia in his early age.
DhuduMiyan assumed the leadership of Fraizi Movement left by his father.
He divided the whole of Bengal into circles and appointed a Khalifa to look after his followers in each circle.
He introduced a political touch in the movement which became the symbol of the resistance of the Muslim peasantry of Eastern Bengal against Hindu Landlords.
He declared that the earth belonged to the Almighty Allah and that no one could inherit it or to impose taxes upon it.
DhuduMiyan believed in equality and considered the richest and the poorest as equally important.
He preached that whenever a brother was in distress it was the duty of his comrades to help him.
He allowed the peasants to refuse paying the taxes except the revenue tax which was imposed by the government.
DhuduMiyan believed in taking practical steps for the betterment of the Muslim peasantry.
He had established his own state where he used to administer justice by settling disputes and by punishing the wrong doers.
The Hindu zamindars dreaded him most and conspired to check the spread of his movement.
He was harassed all his life and was put in jail time and again on baseless charges.
DhuduMiyan died on 24th September 1862 at Bahdurpur in the district of Dacca.
The Fraizi movement under Haji ShariatUllah and DhuduMiyan cultivated a great deal of political awareness among the Muslims of Bengal.
TITU MIR (MIR NASIR ALI)
Mir Nasir Ali, popularly known as Titu Mir was an important leader of the Muslim peasants of Bengal.
He was born in 1782 and belonged to a noble family.
Though he did not belong to the group of HjiShariatUllah but he had similar views on the political, religious, social and economic objectives of the Mulsims of Bengal.
He earnestly desired to revive the past glory of the Muslims and Islam.
Titu Mir went toMakkah in 1819 for performing Hajj, where he came into contact with Syed Ahmed ShaheedBrailvi, who extremely inspired him with his spiritual insight.
After his return fromMakkah, Titu Mir began preaching the poor classed of Jessore and Nadiya in central Bengal.
Titu Mir finally stood against the Hindu customs and practices.
The main objective of his movement was the elimination of Hindu customs which invited Hindu hatred.
False cases were instituted against the Maulvis (followers of Titu Mir) by the Hindu zamindars.
KishanRai, a notorious Hindu Zamindar imposed beard tax on Muslim tenants.
Titu Mir protested against this inhuman tax and physically resisted the tax collectors sent by the Zamindars.
A strong military contingent was sent to crush him.
A fierce encounter took place between the government forces and the followers of Titu Mir on November 18, 1831.
Titu Mir was killed in action.
His followers were arrested and his movement extinguished in course of time.
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