Health Care System in Pakistan

Definition of Solid waste, Refuse and SewageRefuse: Garbage heap (All refuse other than industrial-waste and effluents e.g. animals, vegetables and food wastes)Solid waste: Garbage from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial sources, eg, containers and packaging, food wastes, yard trimmings and miscellaneous organic and inorganic wastes.Sewage: Water-carried wastes, in either solution or suspension, that flow away from a community. It is the used water supply of the community. Depending on their origin, wastewaters can be classed as sanitary, commercial or industrial.

Option 1 – Hopper/Trunk main

Functions of Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency regulates and monitors the disposal of solid waste to protect environmental and human health.

The EPA performs this vital function by promoting the reuse and reduction of solid waste, enforces waste disposal legislation and helps clean up areas contaminated by waste.

Tips to Reduce Waste

The best way to help the environment is by reducing the resources you use.

The EPA recommends that you buy items in bulk packaging, and choose open-air fruit instead of fruit in bags. Instead of buying one-time use items, buy reusable items like cloth napkins instead of paper ones.

In Europe and North America 30–60% of sludge is spread on agricultural land. The use of raw sewage as a fertilizer (long practised in China) has the drawback that disease-causing micro-organisms can survive in the soil and be transferred to people or animals by consumption of subsequent crops.  


Tips to Reduce Waste

In the industrialized countries of the West, most industries are responsible for disposing of their own wastes. Government agencies establish industrial waste-disposal standards. The solid waste (sludge) may be spread over fields as a fertilizer or, in a few countries, dumped at sea.

While recycling and reclaiming materials goes a long way toward reducing pollution.


Ideally, everyone should create a compost (fertilizer) with yard waste like leaves and branches. Organic matter creates methane in landfills and contributes to greenhouse. Instead of throwing out yard trimmings, using them as a compost refills soil and reduces the need to pay for land reclamation.


For non-hazardous waste that cannot be recycled, landfills method is used. A good landfill has lining to protect from toxins leaking into water supplies and covers for full landfills.


A landfill may offer a cheap solution to large amounts of waste, but incineration (burning) can quickly reduce the volume.

Scrubbers and filters prevent acidic gases from release and prevent ash from burning into the air.

Benefits of sewage treatment

There are significant advantages of sewage treatment  both to humans and the natural environment.

With regard to people, the most significant benefit is a major decrease in incidence of waterborne disease.

With regard to favorable impacts to ecosystems as a whole, there are appreciable benefits to health of aquatic animals and plants.

Minimization of nutrient input to natural waters avoids eutrophic (nourishing) effects from potential algae.

Types of Latrines used in community

 Latrine (from Latin lavatrina meaning bath) is a public space that is designed for defecation and urination.

Types of Latrines

Pit latrine

Trench latrine

Composting latrine

VIP latrine

Commode latrine



Pit Latrines

Pit toilets, or pit latrines, are the simplest and cheapest type, minimally defined as a hole in the ground. The most basic improvement is installation of a floor plate.

Trench Toilets

The regulation Trench Latrine in the Great War was supposed to be dug in pits 4-5 feet deep often at the rear (last, back) of the Trench, but sometimes at the frontline , forward, so that men did not remain longer than was necessary. 

A bucket was placed in the pit. Each company would have two 'Sanitary personnel' whose job it was to empty the Latrine buckets, bury the contents, and dig new pits. Obviously this was not a particularly pleasant duty, and was often reserved as a punishment for defaulters.

Composting Toilets

In composting latrines human excreta are mixed with soil and ash to decompose into a compost which can be dug out and used in agriculture.

VIP Toilets

A Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) Latrine is one that reduces two of the most common problems with a simple pit latrine: odor and fly/mosquito breeding.

Adding a ventilating pipe is the key improvement of the ventilated improved pit latrine.

Toilet or commode

toilet is an advanced form of latrine with  a sanitation fixture used for the storing or disposal of human urine and feces.

In developed countries, different forms of porcelain flush toilets are common: seats are usually used in the West while squat toilets are common in East Asia.

Transmission of fecal oral diseases

The fecal-oral route, or alternatively orofecal route is a route of transmission of diseases, in which they are passed when fecal particles from one host are introduced into the oral cavity of another potential host.

There are usually intermediate steps, sometimes many of them. Among the more common causes are:

Water that has come in contact with feces and is then inadequately treated before drinking;

Food that has been handled with feces present.

Poor sewage treatment along with disease vectors like houseflies.

Poor or absent cleaning after handling feces or anything that has been in contact with it.

Transmission of fecal oral diseases

Sexual fetish that involve feces, known collectively as coprophilia (its eating is known as coprophagia).

Diseases transmitted by the method of ingestion

Main vehicle of micro-organisms are water and food

So diseases can also caused by contaminated water and food



Diseases of fecal-oral route include


Hepatitis A

Hepatitis E


Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery)

Typhoid fever

Enteroviruses, including poliomyelitis



Transmission of Helicobacter pylori by oral-fecal route has been demonstrated.


Control of Fecal Borne diseases

Control the source

Control the vector

Immunize the population

Frequent hand-washing by staff and a general awareness of microbial presence can reduce hospital-acquired infections.

Disinfectants but are not always effective.

Relatively pathogen-free water supply in developed countries


Rodents (rats) are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

About forty percent of all mammal species are rodents.

Types of Rats

Roof rat is slim and active, and Its tail is longer than the head and body lengths combined.

Norway rat is larger and more aggressive than the roof rat. It has smaller eyes and ears than the roof rat, and its tail is shorter than the combined head and body length.

House mouse is small, slender bodied, and the tail is longer than the length of its head and body.

Diseases Transmission by Rodents

Worldwide, rodents spread over 35 diseases.

These diseases can be spread to humans directly, through handling of rodents, through contact with rodent feces, urine, or saliva, or through rodent bites.

Diseases carried by rodents can also be spread to humans indirectly, through ticks, mites or fleas that have fed on an infected rodent.



Lassa Fever

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome



Rat-Bite Fever







Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

Lyme Disease

Relapsing Fever

Colorado Tick Fever

Rodent Control

The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to rodent diseases is effective rodent control in and around the home.

This is achieved by eliminating any food sources, sealing even the smallest entries into homes, and successfully trapping rodents in and around the home.

Steps To Rodent Control

Rat survival depends upon the existence of 3 basic environmental factors: (1) Food, (2) Water, and (3) Harborage.

STEP 1: Eliminate Food and Water

STEP 2: Destroy Rats

STEP 3: Eliminate Shelter & Harborage

STEP4: Maintain a Rat Free Property

Chemical Control

Most rodenticides presently available for rat control are chronic anticoagulant formulas, which require several consecutive feedings to reach lethal levels or newer acute anticoagulants, which are usually lethal after a single feeding.

All placed rodenticides must be checked often and replenished immediately when the supply is low.

When the job is finished, uneaten rodenticides should be removed and disposed of.

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and Learn from Everyone
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