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RNA,Nucleotide,Base,Chromosome


RNA is different from DNA. In humans, RNA is single-stranded, the sugar is the pentose sugar and contains the pyrimidine base uracil (U) instead of thymine. Cells have three different RNAs; messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA).

Nucleotides

Nucleotides are biological molecules that form the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). A nucleic acid is a chain of repeating monomers called nucleotides. Each nucleotide of DNA consists of three parts: 1 Deoxyribose – five-carbon cyclic sugar. 2 Phosphate – an inorganic molecule. 3 Base – a nitro-carbon ring structure.

Bases

Bases are the building blocks of the DNA double helix, and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. There are four bases in DNA and these are adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. Each base will pair with a particular base as adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine always pairs with cytosine.

Chromosomes

Chromosomes are thread-like structures of DNA found inside a nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes also contain DNAbound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions. The unique structure of chromosomes keeps DNA tightly wrapped around spool-like proteins, called histones. Without such packaging, DNA molecules would be too long to fit inside cells. Human body cells have 46 chromosomes, 23 inherited from each parent. Each chromosome is a long molecule of DNA.
 

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